‘You might belong in Hufflepuff,
Where they are just and loyal,
Those patient Hufflepuffs are true
And unafraid of toil’
(The Sorting Hat’s Song, 1991)
Justice and loyalty are virtues that are greatly valued by Hufflepuff House, and they are among the most important and recurring themes throughout the series. Justice is at the very heart of the story, as Harry and his friends observe and experience the various injustices of the world and attempt to fight against them. Loyalty is demonstrated by characters with various beliefs on different sides of the fight, and we see the power of loyalty to bring about both the worst and the best in people. Ultimately, those who have a loyalty to justice show how a combination of these virtues can improve the world.
Justice against Injustice
The fight against Lord Voldemort is a fight for justice, as he and his Death Eaters would create a world in which there is great injustice. They commit violence against innocent people, as Hagrid tells Harry about the first wizarding war: ‘Anyway, this – this wizard, about twenty years ago now, started lookin’ fer followers. Got ’em, too – some were afraid, some just wanted a bit o’ his power, ’cause he was gettin’ himself power, alright. Dark days, Harry. Didn’t know who ter trust, didn’t dare get friendly with strange wizards or witches … Terrible things happened. He was takin’ over. ’Course, some stood up to him – an’ he killed ’em. Horribly.’ Many of the Death Eaters believe in pure-blood supremacy and were motivated by that belief to join Voldemort and take discriminatory actions against those who are not of a pure-blood ancestry. This is demonstrated by various actions, from name-calling to discriminatory laws to violence, on the part of Death Eaters and their supporters.
During the second wizarding war, after Voldemort and his followers take over the Ministry of Magic, there are various discriminatory laws being put into place and discriminatory actions taken against anyone who is considered to be of inferior blood status. Attendance at Hogwarts is made mandatory for all young witches and wizards, so that the Death Eaters will have the chance to teach these students their ideology, and all students must show that they are of wizard descent in order to attend. There is a Muggle-born Registration Commission (headed by Dolores Jane Umbridge) and the Ministry hauls those who they suspect of being Muggle-born in front of the Commission. They are accused of stealing magic from witches and wizards, as we see during the interrogation of Mary Elizabeth Cattermole. Some who suspect they will be targeted go on the run to escape being captured, and people are threatened, imprisoned, and murdered for their blood status or their opposition to Voldemort. Much of this is done with the claim that society is being made a better place.
One of the reasons why the Death Eaters, and all such villains, are so frightening is because they believe that what they are doing is correct. They are not comical villains, but rather villains whose ideology reminds readers rather disturbingly of the support for discrimination and persecution in our own world by people who claim they are doing the right thing. Though there are those who support Voldemort for various other reasons (such as fear, bewitchment, or a desire for power) many of the Death Eaters believe that their ideology of pure-blood supremacy is justice, that the world will actually be a better place for them and their families if those who are different from them are either killed or otherwise persecuted. They see themselves as protecting their families against a dangerous threat in their fight against those who are not pure-bloods.
This demonstrates that even those who are actually doing injustice may believe that they are doing what is right; we see how justice can be corrupted, and this corruption of justice — this mirror image of justice, which may insidiously integrate itself into society by resembling the real thing, by making claims of justice while promoting injustice — can convince a great many people to support it and even more to ignore its consequences.
As there are in the real world, however, there are people in this story who do not ignore those consequences. Those who are fighting against Voldemort and the ideology of blood purity are motivated by the injustice they see and a desire to make the world in which they live a better, more equal, place. As Sirius Black responds when Pettigrew ask what will be gained by fighting Voldemort, innocent lives can be saved by opposing evil. As Remus says to Harry, when Harry expresses regret about the fact that Remus died so soon after his son Teddy was born, ‘I’m sorry too. Sorry I will never know him … but he will know why I died and I hope he will understand. I was trying to make a world in which he could live a happier life.’ We see in their willingness to fight for justice an understanding of what will happen to even more innocent people, in addition to those who have already been harmed, if Voldemort and his Death Eaters can rule unopposed. Professor Dumbledore helps Harry realize that it is his own knowledge of the harm caused by Voldemort that motivates him to fight, not the prophecy.
‘Imagine please, just for a moment, that you had never heard of the prophecy! How would you feel about Lord Voldemort now? Think!’
Harry watched Dumbledore striding up and down in front of him, and thought. He thought of his mother, his father and Sirius. He thought of Cedric Diggory. He thought of all the terrible deeds he knew Lord Voldemort had done. A flame seemed to leap inside his chest, searing his throat.
‘I’d want him finished,’ said Harry quietly. ‘And I’d want to do it.’
Even though Harry is the boy who lived, even though there is a prophecy about him, it is not these things which motivate him to fight against Voldemort and the Death Eaters. Because of all he’s been through and learned before this conversation with Professor Dumbledore, he had already decided that he has to fight; he would fight Voldemort even if there was no prophecy. He does not feel that he is being forced to, but knows that he should, because of the injustice promoted by the Death Eaters.
We are motivated to cheer for the members of the Order of the Phoenix, Dumbledore’s Army, and their various allies because of their reasons for fighting against the Death Eaters. They are not merely taking up a fight against comical villains who are proud to be evil, against villains who we know are evil only by their being labeled as such. We see the harm that the Death Eaters are doing, and so we know that our heroes are fighting against injustice; therefore, their fight has behind it a certain moral and just cause that makes it essential for them to win. They must fight, not just because they have been told to do so, but because it is the right thing to do; they must win, not just because they are the main characters, but because their triumph will have an impact upon the lives of those around them. Their victory would mean much more, far more, than just a personal triumph, and their defeat would mean more, much more, than a personal failure. Upon their success or failure hinge the lives of many people, and it is because of the human desire for justice that we want them to win.
Justice is clearly an important theme throughout the books, both in its corruption and in its defense. This virtue, when corrupted, is a great force for evil in the world, and this same virtue, when defended, is a great force for good. The characters in the story each make decisions based upon their own ideas of justice. The characters’ motivations seem a reflection of our own world, because we so often take actions upon our own beliefs of what is just; we are familiar with the arguments between people who have different views and who all think that their beliefs and actions are the best possible way to achieve a better world. These actions affect the lives of others, sometimes intentionally and sometimes unintentionally, and should teach us to think before deciding on our own ideas of justice, given the power these ideas have to motivate the best and worst in human beings. The virtue of justice, so prized by Hufflepuff House, has a great impact upon this story and on the lives of its characters, showing us how people’s idea of what is just can define who they are, can motivate them to take great actions both good and evil, affect those around them, and change the world for both good and ill.
The Loyalties of Villains and Heroes
The loyalty of the fans of the Chudley Canons, who ‘live in hope of a renaissance’ despite the fact that many consider the team’s glory days to be over, may be a source of good fun in the series — an attempt to show that we can become very devoted to our favorite sports team, band, or book series — but loyalty, and the actions taken by characters based upon their loyalties, are very important parts of the series. The importance of loyalty in the series is shown in Sirius Black’s memorable admonishment to Peter Pettigrew (the series’ infamous coward and traitor) after Peter tries to explain his betrayal by saying Voldemort would have killed him: ‘“THEN YOU SHOULD HAVE DIED,” roared Black. “DIED RATHER THAN BETRAY YOUR FRIENDS, AS WE WOULD HAVE DONE FOR YOU!”’ Sirius is willing to die rather than betray his friends, and he isn’t the only one. There are characters who stay true to their friends and to their cause, no matter what the danger, on both sides of the fight. We see throughout the story that a person’s loyalty, their devotion and dedication, can result in a myriad of outcomes and effects on others, based upon what exactly they are loyal to.
Bartemius ‘Barty’ Crouch Junior (son of the Minister of Magic of the same name) joined Voldemort and was sent (along with three other Death Eaters) to Azkaban for the torture of Frank and Alice Longbottom. He was later able to leave the prison secretly when his mother disguised herself as him by drinking Polyjuice Potion and took his place. He lived under his father’s Imperius Curse before escaping and rejoining Voldemort, who gave him the assignment of impersonating Alastor Moody; since Moody was to be the Defence Against the Dark Arts professor during the 1994-5 school year at Hogwarts, this assignment would bring Crouch close to Harry and allow him to deliver Harry to Voldemort. After this plan is successfully carried out, and Voldemort has regained a body, Crouch (while still disguised as Alastor Moody) has a conversation with Harry in which he reveals his true loyalties (though Harry does not understand what is happening until Crouch later tells the whole story under the influence of Veritaserum).
‘If there’s one thing I hate more than any other, it’s a Death Eater who walked free. They turned their backs on my master, when he needed them most. I expected him to punish them. I expected him to torture them. Tell me he hurt them, Harry …’ Moody’s face was suddenly lit with an insane smile. ‘Tell me he told them that I, I alone remained faithful … prepared to risk everything to deliver to him the one thing he wanted above all … you.’
Barty Crouch Junior valued loyalty and considered himself Voldemort’s most loyal Death Eater, because he served time in Azkaban while others went free and also because he helped Voldemort get back into power when others had abandoned him. Although he, unlike Bellatrix Lestrange, begs to not be sent to Azkaban, he believes that the fact of his imprisonment, later confinement by his father, and eventual taking on of the assignment to capture Harry demonstrated his loyalty to Voldemort. He is so fervent in his obsession about loyalty that he wishes to see those who were disloyal tortured. He is desperate to be praised for his loyalty by the person he considers his master, showing that loyalty to Voldemort has become his overriding obsession.
Bellatrix Lestrange is Voldemort’s most devoted follower, ‘his last, best lieutenant’ who stayed by his side and fought to her death, even after other Death Eaters had abandoned the fight. Even before her last stand, she was already known for both her loyalty to Voldemort and her cruelty. While there were Death Eaters and other supporters of Voldemort who claimed, when the first wizarding war ended, that they had been bewitched and forced to follow Voldemort, she didn’t. When she is on trial along with three other Death Eaters for the torture of Frank and Alice Longbottom, she says, ‘The Dark Lord will rise again, Crouch! Throw us into Azkaban, we will wait! He will rise again and will come for us, he will reward us beyond any of his other supporters! We alone were faithful! We alone tried to find him!’ After Draco Malfoy joins the Death Eaters, his mother Narcissa Malfoy (Bellatrix’s sister) is concerned about him, worried that he will not be able to complete the task Voldemort has given him and be killed as a punishment. When Narcissa expresses this concern, Bellatrix says to her, ‘If I had sons, I would be glad to give them up to the service of the Dark Lord!’ Her loyalty to Voldemort is so strong that she is willing to sacrifice anything for him. She is loyal even when others are not, and her loyalty to Voldemort becomes her greatest goal, an essential part of her character.
Voldemort has his followers, some more loyal than others. After he regains his body, he summons his Death Eaters to the graveyard in Little Hangleton, where Tom Riddle Senior (Voldemort’s Muggle father) is buried and accuses most of them of forsaking him. He says, ‘I ask myself … why did this band of wizards never come to the aid of their master, to whom they swore eternal loyalty?’ When a Death Eater named Avery begs forgiveness, Voldemort refuses, saying that he wants thirteen years’ repayment for the thirteen years he was without a body after his defeat at Godric’s Hollow. There are three people who Voldemort believes have been most loyal to him. He praises the Lestranges, saying ‘They went to Azkaban rather than renounce me … when Azkaban is broken open, the Lestranges will be honored beyond their dreams’. He refers to Barty Crouch Junior as the one ‘who remains my most faithful servant, and who has already re-entered my service’. Voldemort demands loyalty of an extreme degree, commanding his followers to forsake everything for him, to go to prison for him, to die for him, to kill for him. His demand for service is a vivid illustration of loyalty taken to its extremes for the most horrible of causes.
Loyalty is demonstrated by characters on the other side of the fight as well, of course. Hermione and Ron are loyal to Harry, from their remaining friends with him even when other students were gossiping and spreading rumors about him to their willingness to risk their lives to help him defeat Voldemort. When Harry tells Ron and Hermione that he’s not planning to return to Hogwarts for his seventh year, and will instead be searching for Voldemort’s Horcruxes to destroy them and eventually kill Voldemort himself, they say they will come with him.
‘We’ll be there, Harry,’ said Ron
‘At your aunt and uncle’s house,’ said Ron. ‘And then we’ll go with you, wherever you’re going.’
‘No –’ said Harry quickly; he had not counted on this; he had meant them to understand that he was undertaking this most dangerous journey alone.
‘You said to us once before,’ said Hermione quietly, ‘that there was time to turn back if we wanted to. We’ve had time, haven’t we?’
‘We’re with you whatever happens,’ said Ron.
Ron’s statement, ‘We’re with you whatever happens’ is an excellent summation of the essence of loyalty. Loyalty is demonstrated, not by staying by a person during the good times, but by staying by them no matter what happens. There are various characters who demonstrate great loyalty to certain people and causes.
Nymphadora Tonks, herself a Hufflepuff, shows great loyalty in both her personal life and in her work for the Order. She demonstrates her love for and her loyalty to Remus Lupin when she says that she wants to be in a romantic relationship with him regardless of the fact that he’s a werewolf. Even though she knows that she will be shunned by many in wizarding society because of her decision to become romantically involved with a werewolf, she does not allow that to stop here from expressing her feeling for Remus.
Perhaps the character whose loyalties most intrigued readers throughout the series and whose actions and motivations continue to be a topic of great discussions is Severus Snape. Snape’s loyalties confused and mislead those around him. He acted as a double agent during the second war, with both sides believing he was on their side until he killed Dumbledore, which provided confirmation for the members of the Order that he was actually loyal to Voldemort. We get hints of Snape’s personality, past, and motivations throughout the story, but it is not until after his death, when Harry looks at Snape’s memories in the Pensieve, that Snape’s love of Lily and some of his reasons for switching sides, secretly helping Dumbledore and the Order (including killing Dumbledore due to Dumbledore’s own request), are revealed. Snape’s loyalties have a great influence on Harry’s life and his task of defeating Voldemort. His character has been analyzed, with many varying interpretations offered; his reasons and motivations for his actions (for joining the Death Eaters in the first place and leaving them to help the Order in the second place) are extremely important and the various hints we receive are taken into account during the analysis. How a reader interprets his actions, words, and memories to determine his motivations and loyalties greatly influences that reader’s opinion of him; that his actions, thoughts, and loyalties were of utmost importance to the story is evident.
Loyalty, another virtue prized by Hufflepuff House, plays an essential role in the story. The various characters in the books show loyalties to their families, friends, and causes. They make difficult decisions when they are faced with conflicting loyalties, and the decisions they make have a big effect on those around them. These characters, and more besides, reflect the world in which we live, as we make our own decisions based upon our own loyalties. In our own lives, we demonstrate the depth of our loyalties to our loved ones and to the ideas which we believe in. One of the reasons that the loyalties of the characters resonate so much with us is because of this similarity between our own world and theirs, between our own personalities and theirs. The virtue of loyalty, so valued by Hufflepuff House, can be used for both good and ill; it has the power to motivate the best and the worst in humanity, depending on what the person is loyal to, and the loyalties of the characters in this story are an essential part of them, just as our loyalties are of us.
A Loyalty to Justice
Throughout the series, characters take actions based upon what they believe is right and demonstrate their loyalty to those who they love and to the causes they support. Based upon their ideas of justice and their loyalty, they take greatly varied actions. It is those, however, who demonstrate their great loyalty to justice by risking their own lives to make the world better and more equal who show us the best of what these virtues can inspire.
Part of this loyalty to justice is the realization that the lives of others are worth defending, that one’s own comfort in a society should not be one’s sole concern, but that we should also be concerned about how our society treats those who are different from us in some way. On an episode of the underground radio program Potterwatch, a conversation between Kingsley Shacklebolt (‘Royal’) and Lee Jordan (‘River’) contains this important sentiment.
‘Muggles remain ignorant of the source of their suffering as they continue to sustain heavy casualties,’ said Kingsley. ‘However, we continue to hear truly inspirational stories of wizards and witches risking their own safety to protect Muggle friends and neighbours, often without the Muggles’ knowledge. I’d like to appeal to all our listeners to emulate their example, perhaps by casting a protective charm over any Muggle dwelling in your street. Many lives could be saved if such simple measures are taken.’
‘And what would you say, Royal, to those listeners who reply that in these dangerous times, it should be “wizards first”?’ asked Lee.
‘I’d say that it’s one short step from “wizards first” to “pure-bloods first”, and then to “Death Eaters”,’ replied Kingsley. ‘We’re all human, aren’t we? Every human life is worth the same, and worth saving.’
Harry, Ron, and Hermione are in a tent, during their extended journey to find and destroy Voldemort’s Horcruxes, when they hear this broadcast of Potterwatch. They have been having a very difficult time during their journey, as they must look for Horcruxes using the limited information that they have and avoid being caught or killed in the process, even though they are being specifically targeted and searched for. Ron’s return has cheered up the group significantly, and Potterwatch cheers them up even more, as they hear the voices of friends who they have not seen for quite a while and about whom they have been concerned. The reason these three friends are putting themselves in danger is for the reason that is stated by Kingsley on Potterwatch; they believe that every human life is worth saving, regardless of the person’s blood status or other differences. They demonstrate through their actions, and their taking on of this great responsibility, that they are truly dedicated to their cause, and they show that their cause is just by advocating a position which puts them in mortal danger.
During the Battle of Hogwarts, many of the students want to stay to fight the Death Eaters, even many who are not yet of age. When Pansy Parkinson wants to hand Harry over to Voldemort, students stand up to defend him, despite Voldemort’s threat.
Before Harry could speak, there was a massive movement. The Gryffindors in front of him had risen and stood facing, not Harry, but the Slytherins. Then the Hufflepuffs stood, and, almost at the same moment, the Ravenclaws, all of them with their backs to Harry, all of them looking towards Pansy instead, and Harry, awestruck and overwhelmed, saw wands emerging everywhere, pulled from beneath cloaks and from under sleeves.
After this display of loyalty to Harry, students who are of age have to decide if they will stay to fight in the battle or leave. Included among those who stay behind are many of the members of Hufflepuff House. The reason for this is because they, being in a house that values justice and loyalty, are motivated by their belief that fighting Voldemort is the right thing to do. Though it is not only the Hufflepuffs who contribute to the fight against Voldemort (in fact, members of all four houses do), these essential values of justice and loyalty are a part of Hufflepuff House’s beliefs, showing that Hufflepuff is important, not just an extra house.
This action by the students near the end of the story is symbolic of an ongoing idea; this theme of characters having a great loyalty to justice is present from the very beginning of the story. In the saga’s first chapter, we learn of the deaths of Lily and James Potter, killed by Voldemort. They fought against the Death Eaters and sacrificed their lives. As Hagrid tells Harry, who had not heard the truth about his parents’ previously,
‘Now, yer mum an’ dad were as good a witch an’ wizard as I ever knew. Head Boy an’ Girl at Hogwarts in their day! Suppose the myst’ry is why You-Know-Who never tried to get ’em on his side before … probably knew they were too close to Dumbledore ter want anythin’ ter do with the Dark Side.
‘Maybe he thought he could persuade ’em … maybe he just wanted ’em outta the way. All anyone knows is, he turned up in the village where you was all living, on Hallowe’en ten years ago. You was just a year old. He came to yer house an’ – an’ –’
They weren’t the only ones who were maimed or killed at the hands or on the orders of the Dark Lord, though. Hagrid also tells Harry that Voldemort ‘killed some o’ the best witches an’ wizards of the age – the McKinnons, the Bones, the Prewetts’. Four years later, Alastor Moody shows Harry a picture of the original Order of the Phoenix, including many people who were killed. Among the names are some familiar ones, including Marlene McKinnon, Edgar Bones, and Fabian and Gideon Prewett, in addition to several others. Frank and Alice Longbottom, also members of the Order, reside at St Mungo’s Hospital for Magical Maladies and Injuries, because they were tortured into insanity by Bellatrix Lestrange. These are people who put themselves at great risk and were terribly hurt or killed due to their participation in the Order; they joined the organization and went into the fight knowing the risks, and chose to take those risks, because they believed that it was just, and they were truly demonstrating their loyalty to justice by taking those risks.
Part of the loyalty to justice that is shown by various characters is seen when people who could have, if they wanted to, stayed out of the fighting and yet chose to put themselves in danger because they know that fighting against Voldemort and the Death Eaters is the right thing to do. Sirius Black, a pure-blood, could have joined Voldemort. He told Harry that his parents, though not Death Eaters themselves, approved of Voldemort’s beliefs and actions. Unlike Muggle-borns, Sirius would not have been automatically targeted due to his blood status; he could have adopted beliefs of pure-blood supremacy and become a Death Eater. Nymphadora Tonks, being a Metamorphmagus, could have chosen to go into hiding, taking on a disguise so that she would not be recognized. Considering that she was especially being targeted by Bellatrix Lesrange, one of Voldemort’s most dedicated and deranged followers, such a decision on her part may have even been understandable. Remus Lupin is discriminated against in wizarding society because he is a werewolf; he could have made a decision similar to that of Fenrir Greyback some other werewolves who sided with Voldemort. Even though Voldemort and the Death Eaters may have provided him with an outlet for his frustration and anger against wizarding society, he chose to join the Order. These are people who had danger all around them, and the opportunity available to choose a safer option; however, they chose to do the more dangerous, more moral thing, by being just and by showing that they were loyal to the cause by fighting, and ultimately dying, for it.
There is, then, the boy who lived. Harry walks into the Forbidden Forest, walks willingly to his death, in order to make sure that Voldemort can be defeated. Though Harry’s sacrifice is the one that offers protection to those who are fighting against Voldemort in the final battle and though it contains significant symbolism from readers’ perspective, his sacrifice is one of many throughout the story. He demonstrates his great dedication to defeating Voldemort by walking willingly to his death; others who fought did not know for certain that they would die, but they knew there was a good chance they would end up either dead or seriously injured.
All the characters who sacrifice their lives to defeat Voldemort echo the sentiments expressed by Regulus Arcturus Black, who wrote in a note to Voldemort (after realizing his mistake in joining the Death Eaters), ‘I face death in the hope that when you meet your match, you will be mortal once more.’ There is, in this statement, a mixture of acknowledging one’s own mortality and impending death while hoping that another person in the future will continue, and finish, the fight. After Harry’s sacrifice, Dumbledore tells Harry that he has the choice of whether or not to go back to fight Voldemort, adding, ‘By returning, you may ensure that fewer souls are maimed, fewer families are torn apart. If that seems to you a worthy goal, then we say goodbye for the present.’ This sentiment is also echoed by the characters who fought against Voldemort; they decided to join the fight for the lives of innocent people and continued to fight even when they had already given so much.
A person can demonstrate loyalty to an unjust cause, which is why loyalty alone is not sufficient; a person can believe in justice but not feel enough loyalty to the idea to take action based upon it, which is why the belief alone is not sufficient. Many people have beliefs about what they think is just and many people have ideas to which they are loyal, but this story teaches us that the truly good thing to do is to support true justice that helps others and to be loyal to this cause to such a degree that risks to oneself are considered acceptable. The characters who are extremely loyal, but to an unjust cause (which they believe to be just), become the most terrifying villains. The characters showing great loyalty to justice become to us, the readers, heroes, because they consider the lives of others important and are willing to put themselves at risk to create a better world. Both justice and loyalty are included in the story through the words and actions of characters who clearly place much importance in them and are motivated by them; these values, considered important to Hufflepuff House, are essential to the story to such a degree that the books would not convey the same ides if these values were not included.
[To read Part 3, click here.]
 Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. London: Bloomsbury, 1997, Ch 7, p. 88. Print.
 Philosopher’s Stone, Ch 4, p. 45.
 Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. London: Bloomsbury, 2007, Ch 11, p. 173. Print.
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 11, pp. 172-3; Ch 13, pp. 206-15.
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 15, pp. 242-7; Ch 21, pp. 338-43; Ch 22, pp. 355-61.
 Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. London: Bloomsbury, 1999, Ch 19, pp. 274-5. Print.
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 34, p. 561.
 Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. London: Bloomsbury, 2005, Ch 23, p. 478. Print.
 Rowling, J. K. Kennilworthy Whisp’s Quidditch Through the Ages. London: Bloomsbury, 2001, Ch 7, p. 66. Print.
 Prisoner of Azbakan, Ch 19, p. 275.
 Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. London: Bloomsbury, 200, Ch 30, pp. 516-525. Print.
 Goblet of Fire, Ch 35, pp. 582-600 (quote from pp. 586-7).
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 36, p. 590.
 Goblet of Fire, Ch 30, pp. 516-25 (quote from p. 517); cf. Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. London: Bloomsbury, 2003, Ch 25, pp. 480-1. Print.
 Half-Blood Prince, Ch 2, pp. 37-9 (quote from p. 39).
 Goblet of Fire, Ch 33, p. 561-71 (quote from pp. 562, 564-5).
 Half-Blood Prince, Ch 30, p. 607.
 J. K. Rowling had originally stated that Tonks was in Hufflepuff House on her official website http://www.jkrowling.com. Since then, however, the site has been redesigned and the pages that once contained the extra information about characters are no longer there. Information about Tonks can be found at http://harrypotter.wikia.com/wiki/Nymphadora_Tonks.
 Half-Blood Prince, Ch 29, p. 582.
 Half-Blood Prince, Ch 27, p. 556.
 Half-Blood Prince, Ch 28, p. 573-9 and Chapter 30, p. 593-5.
 See, e.g., Philosopher’s Stone Ch 17, p. 217; Prisoner of Azkaban, Ch 18, pp. 261-2; Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. London: Bloomsbury, 2003, Ch 26, p. 521 and Ch 28, pp. 563-73. Print.; Half-Blood Prince Ch 25, pp. 508-14 and Ch 30, pp. 593-4. (There are many passages one could cite; I’ve included the ones that came to mind.)
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 33, pp. 529-53.
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 22, p. 357.
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 31, pp. 490-1.
 Philosopher’s Stone, Ch 1, pp. 14-5.
 Philosopher’s Stone, Ch 4, p. 45.
 Philosopher’s Stone, Ch 4, p. 45.
 Order of the Phoenix, Ch 9, pp. 157-9.
 Order of the Phoenix, Ch 23, pp. 454-5.
 Order of the Phoenix, Ch 6, pp. 103-4.
 Order of the Phoenix, Ch 3, pp. 51-2.
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 1, pp. 16-7 and Ch 5, p. 68.
 See, e.g, Prisoner of Azkaban, Ch 22, p. 309; Order of the Phoenix, Ch 14, p. 271; Deathly Hallows, Ch 11, p. 175-6. (There are many passages one could cite; I’ve included the ones that came to mind.)
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 34, pp. 554-64.
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 36, p. 591.
 Half-Blood Prince, Ch 28, p. 569. cf. Deathly Hallows, Ch 10, p. 154.
 Deathly Hallows, Ch 35, p. 578.